Written by

Dr James J Mulvany


Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent yet complex neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 5% of the population. Despite its high prevalence, ADHD often goes underdiagnosed and undertreated. In this article, we will delve deeper into the characteristics, causes, impact, and management of ADHD, as well as highlight helpful resources for individuals seeking support.

Core Features of ADHD:

The hallmark features of ADHD include inattention, distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. These symptoms are typically recognized as the core features of the disorder and can manifest in various settings, such as at home, school, or work. Individuals with ADHD may struggle with maintaining focus, completing tasks, staying organized, managing time, setting and prioritizing goals, and regulating their emotions. These difficulties are attributed to impairments in what are known as executive function skills, which play a crucial role in everyday functioning.

Causes of ADHD:

The causes of ADHD are multifactorial, involving a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurological factors. While the exact mechanisms are not fully understood, research suggests that genetics play a role, as ADHD tends to run in families. Additionally, environmental factors such as exposure to toxins during pregnancy, premature birth, low birth weight, and childhood trauma may contribute to the development of ADHD. Neurologically, differences in brain structure, function, and neurotransmitter imbalances have been observed in individuals with ADHD, though further research is needed to better understand these complexities.

Impact of ADHD:

ADHD can significantly impact various aspects of an individual’s life. Academic achievement may be affected by difficulties with attention, organization, and time management, leading to challenges in completing tasks, studying, and meeting deadlines. Interpersonal relationships may also be impacted by impulsive behaviour, distractibility, and emotional dysregulation, which can strain friendships, family relationships, and romantic partnerships. ADHD can also affect confidence and self-esteem, as individuals may struggle with meeting societal expectations or may face criticism and misunderstanding from others. In the workplace, untreated or poorly managed ADHD may lead to difficulties with job performance, time management, and professional relationships. Additionally, ADHD is often associated with other conditions such as anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct problems, which can further compound the challenges faced by individuals with ADHD.

Management of ADHD:

The good news is that there are effective treatments available for ADHD. A comprehensive management approach typically includes a combination of medication and behavioural therapies. Medications, such as stimulants or non-stimulants, can help to manage the core symptoms of ADHD by improving attention, impulse control, and hyperactivity. Behavioural therapies, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), psychoeducation, and ADHD coaching, can provide individuals with strategies to better manage their symptoms, develop effective coping skills, and improve executive function skills. It’s important to note that treatment plans should be tailored to an individual’s unique needs and may require ongoing adjustments over time.

Helpful Resources for ADHD:

If you suspect you or a loved one may have ADHD, it’s important to seek professional evaluation and support. Telehealth can provide convenient and accessible options for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment. In addition to telehealth services, there are various reputable resources available for individuals and families seeking information and support for ADHD;

ADHD Australia

CHADD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder)


Raising Children Network